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Að spyrja höfundinn: Um kennsluaðferðina að spyrja höfundinn

Um kennsluaðferðina að spyrja höfundinn

 

Kennsluaðferðin að spyrja höfundinn er byggð á hugmynd og rannsóknum þeirra Beck, McKewon, Sanndora, Kucan og Worthy (1996). Með aðferðinni er lögð áhersla á gagnvirkni textans og lesandans. Hún hjálpar lesandanum að fá útskýringar á því hvaða skilaboðum höfundurinn er að reyna að koma á framfæri með textanum og skýra það sem er óljóst. Beck o.fl. (1996) leggja áherslu á að aðferðin sé sveigjanleg og opin og þó svo að ákveðnar spurningar til höfundarins séu settar fram í upphafi þá geta umræður um textann leitt af sér aðrar spurningar en lagt var af stað með. Aðferðina er vel hægt að nota með öðrum lesskilningsaðferðum til að dýpka skilning lesenda á textanum.

Hér er einnig stuðst við þýðingu og staðfæringu Bergljótar V. Jónsdóttur (2010) á aðferðinni auk þess sem útfærsla McLaughlin og Allen (2009) er höfð til hliðsjónar.

Mælt er með því að aðferðin sé notuð með hópi lesenda þar sem það vekur upp fjölbreyttar umræður. Lesendur geta svo smám saman þjálfast í þessari aðferð og farið að nota hana sjálfstætt.

Kennari ætti að taka fram í upphafi að allur texti er mannanna verk og höfundar texta eru misjafnir. Höfundar segja oft frá út frá ákveðnu sjónarhorni og ætlast stundum til að lesandinn geti í eyðurnar. Enginn er hafinn yfir gagnrýni og höfundar sýna okkur aðeins inn í ákveðinn hugarheim sem okkur er frjálst að vega og meta.

Þær spurningar sem hægt er að ganga út frá við lestur texta eru m.a.

  • Hvað er höfundurinn að reyna að segja hér?
  • Hver eru skilaboð höfundarins?
  • Hvað er höfundurinn að tala um?
  • Hvað er höfundurinn að meina hér?
  • Útskýrði höfundurinn þetta vel?
  • Er þetta rökrétt miðað við hvað höfundurinn hefur sagt okkur áður?
  • Hvernig tengist þetta því sem höfundur hefur sagt okkur?
  • Segir höfundur okkur hvers vegna?
  • Af hverju heldur þú að höfundur segi okkur þetta núna?

Við val á bókmenntatextum getur verið gott að nota texta þar sem sumir hlutar sögunnar eru nokkuð ljósir en annað er aðeins gefið í skyn og nauðsynlegt er að „lesa á milli línanna“ til þess að skilja dýpri merkingu textans. Við val á upplýsingatextum er gott að velja texta þar sem töluvert af upplýsingum koma fram en höfundur gerir ráð fyrir að lesandi hafi bakgrunnsþekkingu á viðfangsefninu. Lesendur geta þá velt því fyrir sér hvað er gefið í skyn og hvaða upplýsingar vantar til þess að hægt sé að skilja textann til fulls.

Heimildir:

Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., Sandora, C. Kucan, L. og Worthy J. (1996). Questioning the author: A yearlong classroom implementation to engage students with text. Elementary School Journal, 96(4), 385-414.

Bergljót Vilhelmína Jónsdóttir. (2010). Eflum lesskilning. Reykjavík: Háskólaprent.

McLaughlin, M. og Allen, M.B. (2009). Guided comprehension in grades 3-8 (2. útgáfa). Newark: International reading association.

Síðast breytt: rijudagur, 2 gst 2011, 09:55 eh
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