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Að greina aðalatriði í texta: Loðnir ljúflingar

Loðnir ljúflingar

Af vefnum Í dagsins önn: http://nams.is/I-dagsins-onn/Pistill/2011/05/13/Lodnir-ljuflingar/

 

Hunangsflugur eru stundvísir vorboðar en þessir loðnu ljúflingar fara venjulega á kreik um 20. apríl. Flugurnar eru þó ekki ljúfar ef þær verða fyrir áreiti, drottningar og þernur hafa sting sem þær beita á þann sem raskar ró þeirra. Stingurinn brotnar af og flugan deyr fljótlega á eftir en fórnarlambið hefur þá vonandi lært af sársaukanum og lætur hunangsflugur framvegis í friði!

Á Íslandi finnast nú fimm tegundir hunangsflugna. Móhumla (Bombus jonellus) hefur líklega verið hér frá ísaldarlokum, garðhumla (B. hortorum) nam land um 1960 og húshumla (B. lucorum) sást hér fyrst árið 1979. Nýjustu landnemarnir eru rauðhumla (B. hypnorum) og ryðhumla (B. pascuorum). Þær flugur eru ólíkar þeim hunangsflugum sem fyrir voru á landinu, eru rauðar eins og nafnið gefur til kynna en ekki með gulum og svörtum röndum. Rauðhumla fannst fyrst í Keflavík árið 2008 en síðan hafa flugurnar einnig sést í Reykjavík og Hafnarfirði. Ryðhumla fannst árið 2010 í Hveragerði og eru þær nú nokkuð algengar í görðum þar en flugurnar hafa einnig fundist á Akureyri. Þess ber að geta að ef fólk verður vart við rauðhumlu eða ryðhumlu þá er það beðið að tilkynna það til Náttúrufræðistofnunar Íslands.

Lífsferill allra hunangsflugna er svipaður. Drottningarnar vakna úr vetrardvalanum í seinni hluta maímánaðar. Þá gera þær sér strax lítið bú í holu, oft undir steini, í veggjarholu eða jafnvel gamalli músarholu. Hunangsflugur lifa eingöngu á afurðum blóma og þótt þær séu stórar eru þær ágætis flugdýr. Þær hreyfa vængina ótt og títt þegar þær fljúga en verða þó að hita líkamann upp í 32°C áður en þær hefja sig til flugs. Hunangsflugur sjást því oft makindalegar í sólbaði fyrir utan búin á morgnana þar sem þær drekka í sig sólskinið fyrir flugtak. Þegar hunangsflugur fljúga heyrist suð í vængjunum en vænghreyfingarnar nota þær meðal annars til að fella frjókornin af fræflunum en margar plöntur eru háðar slíkri „suðfrævun“ til að fjölga sér. Í bókunum Náttúran allan ársins hring og Lífheimurinn má lesa nánar um frævun og mikilvægi flugnanna í því ferli. Á vefnum Greiningarlyklar um smádýr má einnig nálgast fróðlegar upplýsingar um hunangsfluguna.

 

Heimildir:

Erling Ólafsson. Vefsíða Náttúrufræðistofnunar Íslands. http://www.ni.is/dyralif/smadyr/greinar/nr/123 [skoðað 12.05.2011].
Gísli Már Gíslason. 2005. Vísindavefurinn http://visindavefur.hi.is/svar.php?id=4768 [skoðað 12.05].
Jón Már Halldórsson. 2004. Vísindavefurinn http://visindavefur.hi.is/svar.php?id=4369 [skoðað 12.05.2011].


 

Síðast breytt: mivikudagur, 27 jl 2011, 09:27 eh