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Ályktun út frá bakgrunnsþekkingu: Réttindi sem allt mannkynið ætti að hafa

Réttindi sem allt mannkynið ætti að hafa

Úr bókinni Þjóðfélagsfræði eftir Garðar Gíslason.

 

Að stýra eigin neyslu

Í gömlu kínversku máltæki segir: „Ef þú átt meira en sjö hluti þá eiga hlutirnir þig“. Nú á dögum er erfitt að finna fólk sem á minna en sjö hluti. Bara flíkurnar sem þú klæðist þessa stundina eru líklega fleiri en sjö að tölu. Samt getur verið ástæða til að staldra smástund við og íhuga hvað felst í þessu gamla máltæki. Hvað var kínverski spekingurinn Laó-tse að hugsa þegar hann sagði að „hlutirnir ættu þig“? Var hann að reyna að segja okkur að við værum svo upptekin af því að eignast hluti og eyða peningum að allt annað félli í skuggann? Hvað felst í því að stýra eigin neyslu? Kannski lætur þú glepjast af þeim sem segja að þú þurfir nýjar buxur, ákveðna gerð af sólgleraugum eða að þú eigir að nota peningana þína í þetta eða hitt.

Peningar þýða völd, frelsi og sjálfstæði. Krakkar í 10. bekk hafa yfirleitt ekki miklar tekjur, sumir vinna hlutastörf eða fá vasapeninga sem þeir ráða sjálfir hvernig þeir nota. Jafnvel yngri krakkar ráða yfir þeim peningum sem þeir vinna sér inn. Margir foreldrar nota peninga til að stjórna börnunum. Ef vel gengur fá börn peninga í verðlaun eða þeim er refsað með skerðingu vasapeninga. Sumir foreldrar setja skilyrði fyrir vasapeningum og vilja að börn taki að sér viss heimilisstörf í staðinn.

Gísli og Rakel eru að ræða um hvað það sé óþolandi að eiga ekki nóg af peningum, fjárskorturinn hamli beinlínis grundvallarþörfum þeirra. Peningaleysið er farið að hafa áhrif á frelsi þeirra og sjálfstæði. Upphaf umræðunnar var að Gísla fannst að hann þyrfti að kaupa sér nýjan tölvubúnað en fékk neitun á aukafjárveitingu frá fjármálayfirvöldunum – foreldrunum. Þó eiga þeir nóg af peningum, í það minnsta miðað við hann og því fannst Gísla gróflega á sér brotið. Honum finnst það lágmarksmannréttindi  að foreldrarnir uppfylli skilyrði barnasáttmála Sameinuðu þjóðanna um þarfir hans að þessu leyti. Honum finnst nýr tölvubúnaður flokkast undir grunnþarfir – en Rakel er ekki viss um að barnasáttmálinn fjalli um slíkar þarfir. Hún hefur lítinn skilning á vandamáli Gísla og telur að hann sé kominn út fyrir sanngirnismörk og stjórnist af duttlungum og kaupæði. Gísli hefur alltaf verið áhrifagjarn og hún er sannfærð um að vinir hans hafi komið þessari fáránlegu hugmynd inn hjá honum. Rakel segir samt ekki mikið vegna þess að hana bráðvantar sjálfa nýjustu gerð af farsíma.

Þú tókst kannski eftir að Gísli notaði orðið grundvallarþarfir áðan. Bandaríski sálfræðingurinn Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) var einn þeirra sem rannsakaði mannlegar þarfir og teiknaði þær upp í pýramída. Neðstar í pýramídanum voru lægstu grunnþarfirnar og þær æðstu efst. Neðstu tvö þrepin í píramídanum eru líffræðilegar þarfir sem allir þurfa að fá uppfylltar. Getur Gísli rökstutt þörf sína út frá þarfapíramída Maslows?

Af því að Gísli þekkti ekki til þarfapíramída Maslows vísaði hann til Barnasáttmála Sameinuðu þjóðanna sem hann var búinn að skoða á netinu og taldi sig þekkja allvel. Við skulum skoða hvað felst einna helst í sáttmálanum.

Nú eiga börnin sín eigin lög!

20. nóvember 1989 var sögulegur dagur í lífi allra barna á jörðinni. Þann dag samþykktu Sameinuðu þjóðirnar sáttmálann um réttindi barna, sem nú er staðfestur sem alþjóðalög. Lögin fela í sér full mannréttindi allra barna og unglinga, hvar sem er í heiminum. Í sáttmálanum stendur að öll börn eigi sama rétt til að lifa og alast upp í friði og öryggi og virðingu fyrir hugsunum sínum og skoðunum. Velferð barnanna á alltaf að sitja í fyrirrúmi. Það ríki sem lokar augunum fyrir vanlíðan barna eða vanrækir þarfir þeirra brýtur gegn lögunum. Markmiðið með sáttmálanum er að gera líf allra barna á jörðinni sem best í framtíðinni. Þú getur skoðað barnasáttmálann í heild sinni á vefsíðu bókarinnar; Á ferð um samfélagið á nams.is.

Þarfapíramídi Maslows

Síðast breytt: mivikudagur, 14 september 2011, 08:06 eh