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Ályktun út frá bakgrunnsþekkingu: Leiðbeiningar til kennara

Leiðbeiningar til kennara

 

Tilgangur

Þegar lesið er þarf lesandinn oft að virkja bakgrunnsþekkingu sína til þess að álykta um textann svo að hann verði skiljanlegri. Sumir textar eru jafnvel þannig upp byggðir að nauðsynlegt er að „geta í eyðurnar“ til þess að fullur skilningur náist. Lesandinn tengir nýja reynslu við það sem hann veit fyrir og þannig verður nýja reynslan honum skiljanlegri. Með því að vinna á þennan hátt geta lesendur öðlast betri og dýpri skilning á þeim texta sem þeir eru að vinna með.

Notkun

Aðferðina er hægt að nota bæði við upplýsingatexta og bókmenntatexta og er notuð á meðan á lestri stendur.

Gögn

Hægt er að nota þankasíðuna ályktun út frá bakgrunnsþekkingu ef álykta á til dæmis um merkingu orða út frá bakgrunnsþekkingu eða þegar tengja á eitthvað nýtt við fyrri þekkingu.

Aðferð

  1. Textinn er lesinn, ýmist upphátt eða í hljóði, til dæmis ein efnisgrein í einu. Eftir lesturinn ræða nemendur og kennari um hvort þurfi að álykta um eitthvað í efnisgreininni eða hvort eitthvað hafi verið óljóst. Ef eitthvað þarf að athuga nánar eða álykta um, er farið í lið 2. Annars er næsti textabútur lesinn.
  2. Nemendur ræða saman um reynslu sína og bakgrunnsþekkingu í sambærilegum aðstæðum.
  3. Helstu atriði umræðunnar eru skráð á þankasíðuna. Í fremsta dálkinn sem merktur er bakgrunnsþekking skrá nemendur sína þekkingu og reynslu sem getur hjálpað þeim að skilja textann. Í næsta dálk, sem merktur er vísbendingar, skrá nemendur þær vísbendingar sem þeir fá í textanum og þeir tengja við sína bakgrunnsþekkingu. Í síðasta dálkinn, sem merktur er ályktun, skrifa nemendur þær ályktanir sem þeir álykta út frá bakgrunni sínum og vísbendingum úr textanum.
  4. Næsta efnisgrein er lesin og ferlið er endurtekið.
Síðast breytt: laugardagur, 17 september 2011, 01:06 eh
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