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Ályktun út frá bakgrunnsþekkingu: Um kennsluaðferðina ályktun út frá bakgrunnsþekkingu

Um kennsluaðferðina ályktun út frá bakgrunnsþekkingu

 

Sú aðferð að tengja bakgrunnsþekkingu lesenda við það sem þeir eru að lesa er kjarni lærdóms og skilnings (Harvey og Goudvis, 2007). Textar eru sjaldan þeim gæðum búnir að þeir útskýri allt sem lesandinn þarf að vita. Lesandinn þarf oftar en ekki að nota sína bakgrunnsþekkingu og álykta út frá henni til þess að skilja merkingu textans til fulls. Höfundur texta gefur sér oft að lesendur hans viti sitthvað um efnið sem textinn fjallar um. Aðferðin sem hér er kynnt er komin frá Harvey og Goudvis (2007) og hefur birst á íslensku í bók Bergljótar V. Jónsdóttur (2010). Þegar lesandi þarf að álykta út frá texta þá nýtir hann bakgrunnsþekkingu sína og þær vísbendingar sem gefnar eru í textanum til þess að álykta um þau atriði sem ekki er sagt með beinum orðum frá í textanum. Með því að kenna lesendum þess aðferð geta þeir náð betri og dýpri skilningi á þeim texta sem þeir eru að lesa. Aðferðina er hægt að nota við bókmenntatexta sem og upplýsingatexta.

Mikilvægt er að kennari stýri vinnu nemenda í byrjun og sé duglegur að miðla af sinni bakgrunnsþekkingu og reynslu. Smám saman er hægt að láta nemendur vinna sjálfstætt með þessa aðferð og mælt er með því að eftir að kennari hættir að stýra vinnu nemenda vinni þeir í litlum hópum, pörum og að lokum einstaklingslega.

Heimildir:

Bergljót Vilhelmína Jónsdóttir. (2010). Eflum lesskilning. Reykjavík: Háskólaprent.

Harvey, S. og Goudvis, A. (2007). Strategies that work. Teaching comprehension for understanding and engagement. Portland: Stenhouse Publishers.

Síðast breytt: rijudagur, 2 gst 2011, 04:48 eh
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