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K-V-L: Um kennsluaðferðina K-V-L

Um kennsluaðferðina K-V-L

 

Lesskilningsaðferðin kann – vil vita – hef lært (e. know – want – learned) var þróuð af Ogle (1986). Aðferðin skiptist í þrennt og er unnið með hana í öllu lestrarferlinu, eða áður en lestur hefst, á meðan á lestri stendur og eftir að lestri lýkur. Í fyrstu velta lesendur fyrir sér hvað þeir vita um viðfangsefnið sem þeir eru að fara að lesa um og skrá það skipulega niður. Þannig virkja þeir bakgrunnsvitneskju sína, en sú vitneskja er sá grunnur sem lesandinn byggir ætíð ofaná. Því næst velta lesendur fyrir sér hvað þeir vilja vita um viðfangsefnið og skrifa það skipulega niður. Þá hefst lesturinn. Að loknum lestri skrá lesendur svo niður hvað þeir lærðu um viðfangsefnið þegar þeir lásu. Þannig hafa þeir tengt nýja vitneskju þeirri sem þeir höfðu áður um efnið. Aðferðin er einkum notuð við lestur upplýsingatexta. Hægt er að bæta við fjórða liðnum, – vil vita meira (e. what I still want to know) (McLaughlin og Allen, 2009). Þar er hægt að skrá niður þær spurningar sem enn er ósvarað eftir lestur textans eða hugmyndir og spurningar sem kvikna þegar lestri textans er lokið. Í framhaldi af því er svo hægt að lesa fleiri texta um sama viðfangsefni. Þessa aðferð væri tilvalið að nota t.d. í tengslum við ritgerðarvinnu nemenda og í stærri verkefnum um ákveðin viðfangsefni.

Í byrjun stjórnar kennari vinnu nemenda. Smám saman er hægt að láta nemendur vinna sjálfstætt með þessa aðferð og mælt er með því að eftir að kennari hættir að stýra vinnu nemenda, vinni þeir í litlum hópum, pörum og að lokum einstaklingslega.

Heimildir:

McLaughlin, M. og Allen, M.B. (2009). Guided comprehension in grades 3-8 (2. útgáfa). Newark: International reading association.

Ogle, D. M. (1986). K-W-L: A teaching model that develops active reading of expository text. The reading teacher 39 (6), 564-570.

Síðast breytt: rijudagur, 2 gst 2011, 04:58 eh
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